Conventional endodontic therapy of a maxillary second molar with atypical anatomy.

Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations Position in the arch: 2nd or 3rd molars Crown and root morphology: Maxillary molar with atypical anatomy   The patient presented with a history of pain in the maxillary right quadrant. Clinical examination revealed that tooth #2 had a deep palatal groove and caries was present. Clinical testing supported a diagnosis […]

Maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus.

Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations Radiographic difficulties: Moderate difficulty interpreting radiographs Crown morphology: Significant deviation from normal tooth/root form (dens invaginatus)   Patient presented with pain, tenderness to percussion, and intraoral swelling associated with tooth #7. Clinical testing supported a diagnosis of pulpal necrosis with symptomatic apical periodontitis. The radiographic examination revealed the presence of dens […]

Medically compromised patient with complex endodontic-restorative needs.

Patient Considerations Medical History: Complex medical history/serious illness/disability   Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations Position in the arch: 2nd or third molar; extreme inclination (> 30 degrees) Tooth isolation: Extensive pretreatment modification (restoration of distal caries)   An elderly patient presented with a symptomatic mandibular second molar. Their medical history indicated that they were receiving a […]

Conventional endodontic therapy of a mandibular second molar with atypical anatomy (s-shaped mesial root).

Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations Position in the arch: Mandibular second molar Tooth isolation: Simple pretreatment modification required for rubber dam isolation Canal and root morphology: Extreme curvature (> 30°) or S-shaped curve   Preoperative evaluation revealed extensive caries and a coronal fracture. Clinical testing supported a diagnosis of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis with symptomatic apical periodontitis. […]